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OPEN FL

Guide for the open and affordable learning community of Florida, OPEN FL.

1- Build on Current State Structures

Florida Academic Standards.

Florida is a national leader in education reform as our laws and policies provide the framework and guidance for a high quality K20 system. Because of innovative laws, students in Florida may: transfer credits earned at any state college to other state colleges; search and register for over 52,000 courses from one statewide catalog from all Florida public colleges and universities; earn guaranteed admission to a state university after earning an associate degree from a state college; and access a free comprehensive online education and career planning system (DLSS, 2018). Florida Statute 1007.25 provides academic standards for the state in the areas of general education courses, common prerequisites, and other degree requirements.

"On January 31, 2019, Governor Ron DeSantis issued Executive Order 19-32, outlining a path for Florida to improve its education system by eliminating Common Core and paving the way for Florida students to receive a world-class education to prepare them for jobs of the future." FLDOE2019, source: http://www.fldoe.org/standardsreview/

OPEN FL will build upon and align within these infrastructure advantages to maximize collaborative efforts and the dissemination of OER use, including its impact on student success.

General Education Courses- 36 credit hours total, 18 core credits.

Through the 2012 House Bill 7135, amendment to Section 1007.25 of the Florida Statutes, faculty committees recommended approximately 30 general education core courses. Students must complete at least one identified course from each of the general education subject areas (including communication, mathematics, social sciences, humanities, and natural sciences), which gives students eighteen credit hours; all of which are guaranteed to transfer to any Florida public institution, unless exempted under law. Several elements of our state system make it particularly promising to focus on general education courses and degree pathways. The following infrastructure elements support this effort.

A. Common Prerequisites Manual. Since 1996, higher education institutions in the state of Florida have maintained (through discipline committees) a list of common prerequisite courses for every degree program. The purpose of such a list is to provide students, especially those planning to transfer in state, with information regarding the courses that they will need to take to be admitted into upper division programs (DLSS, 2018):  https://www.floridashines.org/succeed-in-college/plan-your-path/general-education-core-courses?inheritRedirect=true

B. Standard Course Numbering System. A cornerstone of academic standards in Florida is the Standard Course Numbering System (SCNS), established in the 1960’s. The SCNS allows seamless transition between K-20 systems, https://flscns.fldoe.org/TaxonomyList.aspx.

C. State of Florida Arrangements. Articulation Agreements, http://www.fldoe.org/policy/articulation/, are used to facilitate seamless transfer of student credit among Florida’s educational entities. In addition, House bill 859, signed into law June 2017, authorizes reciprocity agreements with other states. The State of Florida has worked diligently over the last twenty years to align academic standards across higher education institutions, giving this state the ability to avoid “intersegmental inconsistencies with respect to the nature of some commonly taught courses” (ASCCC Task Force, 2018). 

2- Use Career Ladder Agreements to Climb Higher

Under the provision of rule 6A-10.024, career ladder agreements established associate degree programs that articulate into a bachelor degree for designated programs. This project will support the full degree pathway for two out of nine of these agreements and additional programs will be supported in general education course requirements, which equate to around 25% of total credit hours. Career ladder agreements Nursing and Business were chosen for a variety of reasons, including enrollments, job placement %, workplace demands, earning potential, and current industry needs.

Table 1. Detail of Nursing and Business programs

Associate Degree

Baccalaureate Degree

Total Credit Hrs.

Nursing

Nursing

128

Business Admin.

Business, General OR Admin. & Mgmt.

132

3- Leverage Local Efforts

OPEN FL leverages the expertise of state experts throughout the 40 public colleges and universities. As the state of Florida seeks to adopt OER at scale, public institutions of higher education will be on hand to share best practices and successful strategies learned through current efforts. The Florida College System (FCS) institutions, composed of 28 state and community colleges that serve nearly 800,000 students, has embraced the development and implementation of OER (Florida College System, 2018). According to a 2017 FCS brief on OER, 27 colleges reported using OER as a method to increase affordability and reduce costs to students. Two FCS institutions—Broward College and Florida State College at Jacksonville—were part of Achieving the Dream’s Open Educational Resources Degree Initiative; at Broward College the development of OER materials has resulted in $4.75 million in savings to students. At Daytona State College, college mathematics faculty developed textbooks for Pre-Algebra and Elementary Algebra and made them available at no cost to students on the college Learning Management System (LMS). South Florida State College has committed to an aggressive initiative, SFSCopen, to promote and institutionalize use of OER and saved students $450,000. (Florida College System, 2017).

4- Target Degrees and Pathways

The focus presented here will build on State of Florida degree completion efforts, including high school dual enrollment and certificate to degree pathways. Degrees picked for this project emphasize career and technical education and were pulled from the State of Florida’s existing 2+2 and Industry Programs. Recent data available on target programs indicate high enrollment, low-income participants, in-demand industry and occupations, and increased wage potential. In addition, these programs build on transferable credits and incorporate general education.

Target degree-pathways include: 

1) Practical Nursing->AA/AS Registered Nurse->BA/BS Registered Nurse; 

2) Business Admin->AA Business Admin->MBA Business Administration; 

3) Accounting Tech.->AA->BA Accounting; 

4) HVAC->AA/AS Multiple->BA/BS Multiple; 

5) EMT->AA/AS Multiple->BA/BS Multiple; 

6) Information Tech.>AA/AS Multiple->BA/BS Multiple (i.e. Cyber Security); 

7) Dental Hygiene->AA/AS Multiple->BA/BS Multiple.

 

Emergency Medical Technology/Technician (EMT), Information Technology, and Accounting Technology/Technician and Bookkeeping certificate program completers made higher than the Florida statewide median first-year earnings. Ambulatory Health Care Services is forecasted as Florida’s top fastest growing industry through 2024, while Nursing and Residential Care Facilities and Management of Companies and Enterprises rank in the top ten. Healthcare occupations dominated 2016-2024 forecasted fastest growing occupations. Accounting ranked in the top ten supply gap occupations requiring a bachelor’s degree or higher (Economic Security Report, 2017). Employment outcomes for A.S. Degrees within target areas show:

Table 1. Based on Economic Security Report 2017 Supportive Data.

A.S. Degree Program

% Employed

First-year Earnings

Business Administration

70%

$31,824

Dental Hygiene

81%

$40,780

Registered Nurse

89%

$50,136

Emergency Medical Tech.

93%

$52,880

 

General Education :

To support equal opportunity to all degree advancement, a secondary focus for this pilot will be general education courses, which support high-enrollment areas. General education courses are base courses integrated with degree pathways throughout the state including certificate, associate, and bachelor degree programs. General education courses also align with the high-enrollment dual-enrollment courses.

Table 2. Dual-enrollment, high-enrollment General Education courses in Florida.

Course

Course Title

Enrolled

ENC1101

Honors Freshman English I

23,956

ENC1102

Honors Freshman English II

19,565

MAC1105

College Algebra

16,887

PSY2012

Introduction to Psychology

7,689

SLS1101

College Success

7,054

STA2023

Elementary Statistics

6,609

POS2041

American Federal Government

6,179

MAT1033

Intermediate Algebra

6,174

AMH2020

United States History II

5,976

AMH2010

United States History I

5,975

 

Population:

This focus targets the largest overall number of Florida students, key factors to note with this demographic data are: over half of Florida students are female, non-white, full-time, enroll in classroom settings, and attend a four-year institute; approximately half receive federal assistance, are under 21, and live in other housing (Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 2018). Against the national trend, Florida saw a 5% increase in first-time college students from 2004 to 2014 (College Board, 2018). Florida also ranks in the top five among the nation in 2015 data for two-year public college full-time equivalent (FTE) attendance at 53% (College Board 2018). High enrollment consideration alone would have led to the selection of different target discipline areas. Florida data indicates that while Associate in Arts and Bachelor of Arts, specifically in psychology, represent the highest number of degrees issued, students who receive these degrees have lower initial potential earnings than students who obtain Associate in Science degrees, designed to prepare students for the workforce (Economic Security Report 2017):

Table 3. Based on Number of Postsecondary Academic Credentials Awarded and Median First-Year Earnings and Level of Public Assistance, by Credential

Credential

Enrollment

% Public Assistance

First-year Median

College Credit Certificate

55,205

11

$32,120

A.S.

8,122

11

$43,880

A.A.

279,194

9

$28,128

Bachelor’s Degree (FCS)

24,203

7

$42,932

Bachelor’s Degree (SUS)

282,857

4

$35,156

 

The target areas chosen directly align with target population demonstrated here, as the main focus of the program will be degree pathways and general education. Use of OER addresses potential achievement gaps because of access. This is supported by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) which stated, “A major contributing factor to the disparities continues to be the lack of appropriate instructional materials. One effective solution becoming widespread nationally is the use of open educational resources (OER)” (2018). Equal access and treatment strategies that will be employed include the following: blind review process for applications and OER; fair and equal access to participation; ADA compliance; addressing barriers; and reporting measures for violations.

5- Sustainability

Incorporating OER efforts into systematic approaches and habitual rhythms will increase the likelihood that they will remain beyond this project timeframe. Increased numbers of individuals, including the participants of OPEN FL, who are confident in their application and advocacy of OER will not only sustain but grow these efforts. The state community can continue to rely on the state structure and developed materials, such as collaboration event and activity plans, standard project workflows, and templates. A solid base of OER content and spotlight examples of implementation in Florida will give institutions and individuals reasons to continue and expand their implementations. Each year OER resources are retained in the course, student savings will continue to soar. Tying these savings to prominent locations will greatly increase the pressure to continue use of OER. The results of these efforts will be used to solicit sustainable funding for OER. In addition, print on demand will be explored as a sustainable funding option.

 

Alignment with FL Governor's CTE 2030 Goal

Degrees picked for this project emphasize career and technical education and were pulled from the State of Florida’s existing 2+2 and Industry Programs.   The program focus presented would build on State of Florida degree completion efforts, including high school dual enrollment, transfer credits, general education, and certificate to degree pathways.

Spectrum of Open

Spectrum of Open

 

The open and affordable community of Florida, OPEN FL, has defined open in a spectrum.  As you begin around the O we start with, public domain, the most open content we can use in an educational setting and where you should start your journey to find suitable, quality content.  When you work your way around the O the openness of the content actually closes, but all efforts support an open and affordable learning environment for our students. 

For education and information on U.S. Copyright please see the Copyright Guide.

 

Public Domain

Content in the public domain has fallen out of copyright protection, has been placed in the domain by U.S. law, or was marked as public domain by the content creator.   

List of Resources for Finding Works in the Public Domain - This source list is provided by the Public Domain Review, an online journal and not-for-profit project dedicated to the exploration of curious and compelling works from the history of art, literature, and ideas. 

Copyright Genie The Copyright Genie will walk you through the steps to determine if a work is in copyright and, if it is, when it will enter the public domain.

Digital Copyright Slider From the ALA Office for Information Technology Policy, a visual and interactive way to figure out if something is under copyright.

Trademark and the Public Domain - an informative page on the Public Domain Sherpa website that offers insight into reusing works that are in the public domain (or whose copyrights have expired) yet include a trademark. Essentially, what it comes down to is how you use the trademark. To commit trademark infringement, you would have to use the trademark commercially and/or potentially confuse consumers regarding the identity of a product or service.

 

Creative Commons

If you find materials with CC licenses, you are free to use the content as long as you follow the license requirements.  You can Search the Commons to find relevant content on a number of search engines and websites.

Creative Commons - A non-profit organization that works to increase the amount of scholarly works (cultural, educational, and scientific content) in "the commons" — the body of work that is available to the public for free and legal sharing, use, re-purposing, and re-mixing.

Science Commons - A Creative Commons project "meant to lift legal and technical barriers to research and discovery".

 

Open Access

Open access content is often licensed similarly to Creative Commons content, however there are no set license terms.  Each publisher may have different terms and permissions allowed, so content licenses and terms of agreements should be read thoroughly to understand what is permitted.

DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals) - DOAJ is a community-curated online directory that indexes and provides access to high quality, open access, peer-reviewed journals.

DOAB: Directory of Open Access Books - Directory of Open Access Books is a joint service of OAPEN, OpenEdition, CNRS and Aix-Marseille Université, provided by DOAB Foundation in cooperation with SemperTool

 

Indicates Open and Copyright Unclear W/ No Access Barriers

Content in this area is most likely open access, however there is not a clear license.  The content should have no access barriers and must be free to use.  Content licenses, statements, and terms of agreements should be read thoroughly to understand what is permitted.  With this content it is advised that faculty link out to this content and not embed or re-mix into their course/work. 

 

Library Content

Licensed Works (Caution- Most Materials Not Open)

If you are using library-licensed materials for an online course, such as on Canvas, you should consider providing perma-links, DOIs, or citations of the specific resource rather than including them in the learning management system (LMS) for students to download directly; this is beneficial for several reasons: Usage statistics for that resource will increase, which will let librarians in collection development know that the resource is being used. (When resources have low usage statistics, they have a greater chance of having their subscription canceled); Some of the licenses may not allow for electronic reuse in learning management systems, like the LMS; If you provide citations (with no links), students will better learn how to search and navigate the library databases for the specified resources.

Digitized Works (Caution- Mixed Copyright)

Copyright, and course use, is determined by the original material's copyrights, not the libraries' digitized item.  These items will vary and may be in the public domain, creative commons licensed, open access licensed, undetermined, or under full copyright protection.  Please contact the local library to get assistance in determining use rights if you are uncertain.

 

Education Use Permitted

Content in this area is most likely okay to use for coursework, however there is not a clear license.  The content should have no access barriers and must be free to use.  Content licenses, statements, and terms of agreements should be read thoroughly to understand what is permitted.  With this content it is advised that faculty link out to this content and not embed or re-mix into their course/work. 

 

Fair Use

If you are only having students use the materials in the physical class room section or within the LMS you may be able to use exemptions allowed by U.S. law Sections 110(1) or 110(2).  However, if you expect students to use the material outside of the active classroom/lecture you should determine if you have a fair use exemption (Section 107) instead. If you feel the documented evaluation of your use is fair then you may be able to use the content, so long as it is a legal copy.  When the environment, such as where the materials will be made available, changes or the context of why you are sharing the materials changes (i.e. the first factor of fair use or the purpose of your use), your use must then be re-evaluated. If you decide to make copyrighted materials available publicly online rather than only available to students officially enrolled in the course (e.g. through Canvas), then you will need to evaluate if this use is a fair use (please note case law favors plaintiffs with proven or potential market impact).  

Please note that all exemptions in the law need to be determined each time the content is reviewed or curated.  We advise that faculty re-evaluate their exemptions at least once per year.  New content is falling into the public domain every year or being created in an openly licensed way everyday.   

Fair Use Evaluator This tool helps you make a fair use evaluation and provides a PDF document of your evaluation for your records.
Summaries of Fair Use Cases: Understanding previous fair use cases will help you in understanding this principle.
The Four Factors of Fair Use: outlines the four factors and gives examples about what is and is not in favor of fair use.

Code of Best Practices in Fair Use from the Association of Research Libraries

 

Permitted by Copyright Holder

If necessary, request permission or purchase a license through a collective rights agency to use the item; it's not very common for an individual faculty member to purchase a license for use of a copyrighted work in the classroom. Faculty members in music, drama, and dance may be familiar with purchasing specific public performance licenses.

Model Permission Letters can be used to ask permission before posting content, from Dr. Kenneth D. Crews (formerly of Columbia University)